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The default format for output is YAML, but you can select JSON, XML, CBOR, or MessagePack instead with --format/-f. Note that Clout in JSON may lose some type information (e.g. JSON doesn’t distinguish between an integer and a float). For this reason we also support a “compatible JSON” format (“xjson”) that adds that type information. You would need specialized code to be able to consume this format. XML output uses a bespoke structure for maps and lists, which also must be specially consumed. (The puccini-clout tool supports all these formats as input.)

For YAML you can add the additional --strict/-y flag to output a stricter YAML, which adds scalar type tags (such as !!str, !!int, !!timestamp) and outputs all strings in double quotes with no | or > notations. This is useful if you are consuming the YAML output with a non-compliant or buggy parser.

Another YAML-specific flag is --timestamps/-w. By default Puccini will not allow the YAML !!timestamp type in its output, instead emitting a canonical ISO-8601 (RFC-3339) string. Set this flag to true to emit !!timestamp.

TOSCA Quirks

pucini-tosca supports “quirks”, via the --quirk/-x flag, which are variations on the default grammar rules. The reason this is required is unfortunate: the low quality of the TOSCA spec, riddled as it is with gaps, inconsistencies, and errors, means that there’s too much room for varying interpretations of the spec as well as missing functionality. Puccini aims to adhere as closely as possible to the spec, literally and in spirit, but also must be pragmatic. Quirks allow Puccini to smooth incompatibilities with other tools and work around a few TOSCA pain points. Example of use:

puccini-tosca compile weird.yaml -x data_types.string.permissive

The list of supported quirks is maintained here.


See the tutorial for more detail.


Extracts, validate, and outputs the CSAR metadata.


If you need more diagnostics for TOSCA parsing use the parse command. It works similarly to compile but does not emit Clout. Instead, it provides you various flages for examining the internal workings of Puccini’s TOSCA parser.

By default Puccini will attempt all 6 parser phases. This is in order to give users as complete a problem report as possible. However, if you’re getting too many problems it may be useful to specify --stop/-s with a phase number (1-6) at which you wish the to stop.

--dump/-d is used to dump the internal data of phases. You may specify multiple phases to dump using “,”, e.g. -d 2,3,4. Per phase you will see:

The --filter/-r flag can be used to filter for specific parsed entities. Each entity is given a path that more-or-less follows JSON. For example, a path can be:


The flag will search for all paths that contains your string, e.g. -r properties. You can even include one or more “*” wildcards, e.g. -r 'node*properties*data'.